Rivers Of Pakistan
Water, a finite commodity, has a direct bearing on almost all sectors of economy. In Pakistan its importance is more than ordinary due to the agrarian nature of the economy. Pakistan has the widest irrigation system in the world. There are five major rivers of Pakistan which are filled by several small rivers. The most widely spread canal system is of great importance and supplement to the agriculture of the country. Among the available resources of water in Pakistan, the river water is the biggest one. There are five major Rivers of Pakistan.
The Indus: The creation of the embryonic Indus river system, the main source of surface water in South Asia, most likely began 50 million years ago when the Indian plate, Gondwanaland, first collided with Eurasia, Angaraland and formed the Himalayan Mountains in the Mesozoic era. The Indus River system comprises of three major reservoirs, 16 Barrages, 2 head-works, 2 Siphons across major rivers 12 inter link canals, 44 canal systems(23 in Punjab, 14 in Sindh, 5 in Khyber P and 2 in Balochstan) and more than 107000 water courses. The aggregate length of the canals is about 56073 km. It originates from singikahad near Manshwar Lake. Important engineering’s Tarbela Dam and Gazi Brotha Hydro Power Project.
Length Of Indus River - 2700 Km.
Catchments area – 404220 Km.
Annual Average flow – 48 MAF.
The Chanab river originates in the Kulu and Kangra districts of the Himachal pardesh, provinces of India. The two chief Streams of Chenab—the Chandr and the Bangr—rise elevation of 16000 feet. These join at Tandi in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Feed by inumerable tributaries on the long journey from its headwaters, the river gains immense power region above Kashmir. In enters Pakistan through Sialkot near Diawara Village.
Length in Pakistan – 724 km
Important Engineerings– Marala Barrage khanki Barrage
Catchmeet Area – 41656 km
Annual Average flow – 12.38 MAF
The chenab flows through the alluvial plains of the Punjab province. It is then joined by the Jehlum Riverat at Trimmu, 64 km downstrons of Trimmu, the river Ravi joins it. The Satluj joins Chenab upstream of Punjnad and finally at above 64 km below Punjnad it meets of river Sindh at Mithankot. The river Chenab has Marala, Khanki, Punjnad, Trimmu and Qadirabed Barrage and Marala – Ravi link Canal. India has constructed Salal Dam in Jammu about 40 miles upstream of Marala Barrages.
River Sutlej longest of the rivers that give Punjab (meaning “Fiver River”) originates in western Tibet in the Kailas mountain ranges. Flowing Northwest and West – South West through Himalayan gorges, it crosses Himachal Pardesh state (India) and enters the Punjab plains in Hoshiarpur district, Punjab state.
Total length – 1450 km
Length in Pakistan – 526 km
Important Engineering– Dialpir canal, Islam Barrage, Sulemanki Barrye
Catchment Area – 65932 km
Annual Average flow – 0.021 MAF
Continuing Southwest in a broad channel, it relieves the Beas River and from 105 km Indo-Pak border before entering Pakistan and joining the chenab river west of Bahawal Pur.
The Jhelum is a large eastern tributary of the Indus. It rises from a deep spring of Vernag, in the Indian-held Jammu and Kashmir state. The river moves North-West ward from the Northern slope of the Pir Panjab range to Wular Lake. At Mazaffarabad, the Jhelum joins the Kishanganga river and then bends Southward forming part or the border between Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa. Near Mangla, it breaks through the Siwalik range into broad alluvial plains. At Jhelum town the river turns South-West ward to Khushab and then bends Southwards to join the Chenab river.
Total length – 725 km
Length in Pakistan – 379 miles
Catchment Area – 21359 miles
Annual Average flow – 11.85 MAF
The Mangla Dam is one of the biggest dams of Pakistan built on Jhehlum river and its reservoir irrigates about 3,000,000 acres of land and has an installed capacity of 300 MW of electricity.
The Ravi is the smallest of the five main eastern tributaries of Indus. It rises in the Himalauans in Himachal Pardesh (India) and flows west – Northwest past Chamba, turning Southwest at the boundary of Jammu and Kashmir. It flows past Lahore and turns west near kamalia, emplying into the chenab River South of Ahmadpur sial after a course of about 764 km.
Length in Pakistan – 675 km
Important Engneerings – Balloki and Sindh nai head works.
Catchment Area – 25185 km
Amnual Average flow 1.47 MAF.